miRNA as a potential biomarkers in CRC disease.
CRC screening methods by using colonoscopies and fecal occult blood tests (FOBT) have improved survival rates by early detection. However, there are still problems by removing the precancerous polyps during colonoscopies procedure, although FOBT testing have less invasion procedure but low sensitive and specific.
miRNA as a biomarker for CRC
Therefore, new non-invasion and accurate biomarkers are needed to improve by evaluating for their potential in this area. Over the last decade, miRNA expression has been proven to examinate the association of CRC incidence and prognosis by detecting not only fecal miRNA but also circulating miRNA as a non-invasion early detection biomarker (Schetter AJ, 2012).
Biomarkers from stools
Measuring microRNA in stools provide another non-invasion methods to detect CRC. Both of miR-21 and miR106a with high expression in CRC patients (Link A, 2010). Hypermethylation pattern of miR-34b/c in stools may have promise as a screening tool for distinguishing CRC cases from controls.
A potential of circulating markers in CRC patients
Circulating microRNAs can be detected in blood serum or plasma. miR-92 may be a useful marker for disease recurrence after surgical removal of the tumor (Ng EK et al. 2009). miR-141 has been shown to be elevated in metastatic CRC which conjugated with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) to detect CRC with distance metastases (Cheng H et al.2011).
Human antigen R (HuR) has been reported to enhanced CRC cancer growth by overexpressing in RNA regulation. miR-155-5p regulated HuR expression by mediating AU-rich elements (AREs) at 3’ UTR region and has showed inhibition of cell migration (Amr Al-Haidari et al. 2018).
Angiogenesis as a potential biomarker in CRC
A previous study showed targeting angiogenesis in the CRC treatment is also a common strategy and miRNA involved in several angiogenic pathway. They are stable in biological fluids which been a potential biomarker. The circulating plasma levels of miR-20b, miR-29b and miR-155 as predictors of Bevacizumab treatment in CRC patients. (Paola Ulivi et al. 2018).
TOOLS launched a comprehensive list of miRNA assays that covers miRNAs reported in breast cancer studies. The TOOLS miRNA assay system consists of TOOLS miRNA RT Kit, TOOLS miRNA RT-qPCR primer/probe set, and TOOLS Easy 2X probe qPCR mix. All TOOLS miRNA RT-qPCR primer/probe set are pre-designed, well-validated, and QC. Customized design and production of miRNA RT-qPCR primer/probe set is also available. TOOLS miRNA assay allows rapid, sensitive, and specific profiling the expression of microRNA (miRNA) within the simple 2-step RT-qPCR procedure.
To see the full list of TOOLS miRNA assay and related products, please click TOOLS Life Science Reagents - tools-biotech.com.
TOOLS provides well-validated RT-qPCR assay set to CRC associated miRNAs.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/colorectal/
- Graham, J. S. and Cassidy, J. (2012). Adjuvant therapy in colon cancer. Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther. 12, 99-109.
- Rousseau B, et al. Stage II and stage III colon cancer: treatment advances and future directions. Cancer J. 2010;16(3):202–209.
- Schetter AJ, Okayama H, Harris CC. The role of microRNAs in colorectal cancer. Cancer J. 2012 May-Jun;18(3):244-52.
- Fecal MicroRNAs as novel biomarkers for colon cancer screening. Link A, Balaguer F, Shen Y, Nagasaka T, Lozano JJ, Boland CR, Goel A Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Jul; 19(7):1766-74.
- Differential expression of microRNAs in plasma of patients with colorectal cancer: a potential marker for colorectal cancer screening. Ng EK, Chong WW, Jin H, Lam EK, Shin VY, Yu J, Poon TC, Ng SS, Sung JJ Gut. 2009 Oct; 58(10):1375-81.
- Circulating plasma MiR-141 is a novel biomarker for metastatic colon cancer and predicts poor prognosis. Cheng H, Zhang L, Cogdell DE, Zheng H, Schetter AJ, Nykter M, Harris CC, Chen K, Hamilton SR, Zhang W PLoS One. 2011 Mar 17; 6(3):e17745.
- Al-Haidari A, Algaber A, Madhi R, Syk I, Thorlacius H. MiR-155-5p controls colon cancer cell migration via post-transcriptional regulation of Human Antigen R (HuR). Cancer Lett. 2018 May 1;421:145-151.
- Ulivi, P.; Canale, M.; Passardi, A.; Marisi, G.; Valgiusti, M.; Frassineti, G.L.; Calistri, D.; Amadori, D.; Scarpi, E. Circulating Plasma Levels of miR-20b, miR-29b and miR-155 as Predictors of Bevacizumab Efficacy in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 307.